Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder. It predominately attacks “Dopaminergic”, dopamine-producing neurons in a particular area of the brain called “Substantia Nigra”. In this condition, dopaminergic neurons would be impaired and it causes the gradual decline of dopamine level in the body. Dopamine is the key to control the body movements. Parkinson’s syndrome may be either progressive or chronic. Symptoms gradually worsen in the progressive stage whereas chronic persists for a long period.
Parkinsons Disease causes:
The exact cause of PD is unknown. However, the suspected causes of Parkinson’s disease are
- Prolonged exposure to the toxins such as herbicides, fungicides, insecticides
- Usage of MPTP, a synthetic neurotoxin, can also cause PD symptoms
- Certain genetic mutations that are passed genetically to the family members
Parkinsons Disease symptoms:
- Rigid muscle & stiffness
- Slowness of movement
- Tremors mainly at rest
- Unsteady balance and gait
- Anxiety & Depression
Treatment for Parkinson’s syndrome:
Unluckily, the PD cannot be cured. The treatment is focused towards reducing the severity of the symptoms and restoring dopamine production to improve overall health. The acetylcholine effect needs to be blocked. Medications, surgical intervention, and lifestyle changes are the treatments for Parkinson’s disease.
Parkinson’s disease medication:
The combination of two drugs Levodopa & Carbidopa is Sinemet which is the most effective drug for Parkinson’s disease. The symptoms such as muscle rigidity and slow movement are controlled by Levodopa. However, the life of Levodopa is only a short period of time and the symptoms may relapse. The side effects of the drug are nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, dyspepsia, restlessness, involuntary movements, low blood pressure, and confusion.
Anticholinergic Drugs are normally prescribed for treating tremors associated with Parkinson’s disease. The acetylcholine action is restricted by these drugs.
Dopamine Agonists will mimic the dopamine effects in the brain. The drug can directly stimulate dopamine receptors. However, insomnia and hallucinations are the side effects caused by the drug.
Antiviral Drugs improves the dopamine balancing and reduces the symptoms
When the medications fail to control symptoms, then the surgery is performed to repair the severe motor fluctuations.
Deep Brain Stimulation:
Electrodes are implanted into a certain area of the brain that controls movement. Then, it is connected to a pulse generator implanted in the chest area. It delivers impulses to the targeted area of the brain. This surgical treatment is a success over 70% of the patients and they acquired gradual improvements. Seizures, bleeding and infections could be the rare risks.
In another surgical type, the specific area of the brain which causes PD would be destroyed.
Lifestyle changes, language therapy, physiotherapy and occupational therapy would help to improve the Parkinson’s disease patients’ routine life.
Dr. Sai Sudarsan is one of the best neurosurgeons in Hyderabad who has been treating all neurological issues and performed many neurosurgeries successfully. He is the ace neurosurgeon for Parkinson’s disease treatment in Hyderabad.
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